Wednesday, June 25, 2014

Herbarium Type Sheets (1)

Herbarium Type Sheets
Scanned from NY
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pg 2: Hoya angustifolia Elmer #16340 (NY)
➤ pg 3: Hoya angustifolia Elmer # 16916 (NY)
pg 4: Hoya angustifolia Elmer; Hoya tsangii Burton ex Kloppenburg, Isotype # 13372 (NY)
➤ pg 5: Hoya archboldiana Norman Type #3621 (NY)
pg 6: Hoya benguetensis Schlechter Type #8896 (NY)
➤ pg 7: Hoya benguetensis Schlechter #5979 (NY)
pg 8: Hoya bicarinata A. Gray Type # sn. (NY)
➤ pg 9: Hoya bilobata Schlechter Type #420 (NY)
pg 10: Hoya panchoii Kloppenburg Syn. Hoya bulusanensis Elmer Type #15937 (NY)
➤ pg 11: Hoya benguetensis as cagayanensis Burton Type #8996 (NY)
pg 12: Hoya carrii Forster & Liddle Isotype # ? (NY)
➤ pg 13: Hoya ciliata Elmer ex Kloppenburg Isotype #11072 (NY)
pg 14: Hoya crassicaulis Elmer ex Kloppenburg Type #14440 (NY)
➤ pg 15: Hoya elmeri Merrill Type #20652 (NY)
pg 16: Hoya fungii Merrill Type #20137 (NY)
➤ pg 17: Hoya intermedia A. C. Smith Type #399 (NY)
pg 18: Hoya lancilimba Merrill Type #18261 (NY)
➤ pg 19: Hoya lantsangensis Tsiang & P. T. Li Type # (NY)
pg 20: Hoya liangii Tsiang Type # 62867 (NY)
➤ pg 21: Hoya lyi Livell Type # 4738 (NY)
pg 22: Hoya macrophylla Blume Syntype sn. (NY)
➤ pg 23: Hoya mengtzeensis Tsang et P. T. Li, Type #11368 (NY)
pg 24: Hoya merrillii Schlechter Type #2218 (NY)
➤ pg 25: Hoya nervosa Tsiang & P. T. Li. Type # 12994 (NY)
pg 26: Hoya obscura Elmer ex Burton Isotype # 16719 (NY)
➤ pg 27: Hoya ovalifolia Wight & Arnott Isotype # 1522 (NY)
pg 28: Hoya pandurata Tsiang, Type #12258 (NY)
➤ pg 29: Hoya pentaphlebia Merrill Isotype #17411 (NY)
pg 30: Hoya pubifera Elmer, Type #16971 (NY)
➤ pg 31: Hoya schneei Schlechter #1569 (NY)
pg 32: Hoya tsoi Merrill Type #23455 (NY)
➤ pg 33: Hoya wightii Hooker, Isotype # 27 (NY)

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Tuesday, June 24, 2014

Hoya Literature Compendium (6)

I herein present as much of the hoya literature, pertaining to each individual species, as I had available to me. The volume's as originally constituted in hard copy consist of five Sections in Volume I, see the contents page, following for details.

Volumes II through VI followed. Here the species were listed in alphabetic order, followed by the volume (where applicable), the date in brackets; page number when available to me. The author’s name follows this; the species is presented in bold type. All other binomials within a given text are italicized. If the literature is in a language other than English I have translated it (with the exception of Chinese and Japanese Script and the Vietnamese publications in most cases). The word Translation has been underlined for easy reference. Comments and Notes are also underlined.

Literature here presented on disks in Word For Windows 95 format. By the use of "FIND" and "GO TO" all words are easily accessed. This is available under the Edit function.

The vast majority of pertinent Hoya literature is presented, however they’re some I do not have available. I would appreciate your sending me any corrections in the text or in the translations. I would also appreciate copies of any new Hoya literature (not popular presentations) or any older works that I have missed. They will be added to upgraded editions of this publication.

My work on this compendium will have been worthwhile and I will be pleased if this material helps those interested in the Genus Hoya; especially if students are able to further their studies by having in one place the major portion of pertinent Hoya literature.

I owe a lot to many people who have unselfishly helped me in compiling and translating. They are too numerous to mention here. I appreciate all their efforts and help in this regard.
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Content of Volume I .pdf document
Section I: Hoya publications arranged in alphabetical order. Listing publication date, Author and applicable page numbers. Pages 1-23.
Section II: Publications relating to Hoya Species. Species binomials arranged alphabetical with author followed by the publications listed by date. Pages 1-58.
Section III: The Genus Hoya R. Brown. Pages 1-10
(a) List of Synonyms of Hoya.
(b) Type descriptions of synonyms.
Section IV: Chronological listing of descriptions of Genus Hoya R. Brown. Pages 1-15.
Section V: Alphabetical list of Hoya species with date of publication followed by publication, volume, page; author. Pages 1-14.
Volume II  .pdf document
Species, pg 1~200,  Hoya Acuminata↔Hory Coriacea
Volume III  .pdf document 
Species, pg 1~191, Hoya Coronaria↔Hoya Imperialis
Volume IV  .pdf document 
Species, pg 1~184, Hoya Inconspicua↔Hoya Multiflora
Volume V  .pdf document 
Species, pg 1~188, Hoya Myanmarica↔Hoya Rumphii 
Volume VI  .pdf document 
Species, pg 1~110, Hoya Rupicola↔Hoya Zollingeriana


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Monday, June 23, 2014

Hoya Sections (1)

This study started out at the suggestion of David Liddle of Mareeba, Queensland, Australia. David called and encouraged me to write up the “Section Acanthostemma” since so many of its species were found in the Philippines where I have concentrated my studies. Many species have, over time, been placed in the incorrect section. It has been stated that the sections were useless and that few people understood them. Moreover, they were not being used as study tools in understanding this complex genus. My study of one section soon expanded to the study of all sections and their origin and organization.

It was not long before after much compiling, that I found I was generating as many questions as answers. Some questions I couldn’t answer. I was soon seeking help namely from Professor Benjamin Stone. Dr. Stone is working on the “Philippine Flora Project”, a full time job. In spite of time constraints, Ben took the time to provide me with invaluable assistance. He has been most gracious in giving me advice on organization, translations, form and substance and above all, motivation. I guess I should add education. I have found his “tutoring” process to be immeasurably valuable and worthwhile. I wish here to publicly express my deep gratification and thanks for all his assistance.

It is my wish that others will find herein a useful tool and stepping stone towards a fuller and better understanding of this complex Genus Hoya.

❀  .pdf document  ❀

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Hoya Species

The following is a listing of Hoya Species:  .pdf document

Also See:  Hoya Species: Alphabetical Compilation:  click here 

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Hoya Leaves (4)

Hoya Leaves

The following mostly consist of leaves I have pressed and dried from plants of my collection. Grown from collected hoya material grown in Fresno, California. In the dried state the nerves are usually more visible. I scanned the leaves top and bottom along with a inch and millimeter scale for comparison.  I have measured the length and widest portion of the leaves, the length and diameter of the petiole and the angle the leaf nerve makes with the midrib.

❦  pg. 1~71, Leaves Top and Bottom  .pdf document 

❦  pg. 1~52, Leaf Data From Hoya Type Descriptions .pdf document 

❦  pg. 1~39, Hoya Leaves from Holotype Sheets: A~M .pdf document 

pg. 40~66, Hoya Leaves from Holotype Sheets: N~W .pdf document 

Also see:  Hoya Foliage - Their Leaves: click here

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Philippine Key to Hoya Species (2013)

There are some structural properties not yet found 
in the Philippine hoya species so the key is left blank.
At the end are pictures of most characters.

❈ 1) pg 1~131  .pdf document
❈ 2) pg 1~12  .pdf document

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Saturday, June 21, 2014

Hoya Type Herbarium Species Files (14)

Hoya Herbarium


 The following files represent a described species.

0) pg 1~10, INDEX  .pdf document
1) pg 1~26, Hoya Acanthominima↔Hoya Benguetensis .pdf document 
2) pg 1~29, Hoya Benstoneana↔Hoya Carrii .pdf document 
2.1) pg 1~25, Hoya Caudata↔Hoya Crassicaulis .pdf document 
2.2) pg 1~23, Hoya Crassicaulis↔Hoya Elmeri .pdf document 
3) pg 1~21, Hoya Epedunculata↔Hoya Hainanensis .pdf document
3.1) pg 1~25, Hoya Hainanensis↔Hoya Lancilimba .pdf document
4) pg 1~21, Hoya Lancilimba↔Hoya Mengtzeensis .pdf document
4.1) pg 1~24, Hoya Meredithii↔Hoya Nuuuliensis .pdf document
5) pg 1~20, Hoya Obscura↔Hoya Pananyensis .pdf document 
6) pg 1~23, Hoya Panchoi↔Hoya Pseudomaxima .pdf document
7) pg 1~21, Hoya Puber↔Hoya Rizzaliana .pdf document
8) pg 1~32, Hoya Rhodostella↔Hoya Torricellensis .pdf document
9) pg 1~22, Hoya Treubiana↔Hoya Taufunua .pdf document

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Wednesday, June 18, 2014

Coronal Column Types

Coronal Column Types

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Hoya New! Vol 2, #2 April 2014

Hoya New

Volume 2, Issue 2
April 2014
 When a species is collected from the wild, I feel it is wise to identify it, propagate it and name it. In this way it will eventually get it into commercial channels, be distributed to all those interested in this genus and thus be preserved. If in the future the species is lost through natural causes or forest destruction it will still be here on earth in your collection.

The following new species are presented in PDF format with ISSN number.
1. Hoya irisae Ferreras, Kloppenburg & Tandang
2. New combination: Hoya blashernaezii Kloppenburg subsp. valmayoriana Kloppenburg, Guevarra & Carandang 2013, coma. nov.
3. New combination: Hoya mindorensis Schlechter 1906 subsp. erythrostemma Kerr 1939
4. Hoya blashernaezii subsp. siariae Kloppenburg
5. Hoya tangerina Kloppenburg, Mendoza& Ferreras
6. Hoya rima Kloppenburg, Mendoza & Ferreras
7. Hoya ralphdavisiana Kloppenburg, Mendoza & Ferreras

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Malaysian Hoya (6)

 Malaysian Hoya

A Monograph 2004
6 files / Species

In this works I am including known species of the Genus Hoya R. Brown in the Peninsular Malayan area and the Malaysia Borneo areas of Sabah and Sarawak. The mainland peninsular area has been botanized for years but it is only recently that much attention has been given to the Borneo areas. Our knowledge of the genus has continued to expand in recent years but I feel for the most part we have only scratched the surface. We are learning more about speciation and the variations therein. Isolation limits gene flow and this eventually leads to speciation. Our collecting and botanizing efforts cover a long time span but there are many areas yet untouched by these efforts. In general there are vast areas yet to be entered. It is my observation that most of this effort has been confined to road, trail access; along shorelines, streams and mountain ridges. These are places of more easy access but between these areas there are vast expanses of untouched territory yet to feel the feet of botanists. As any collector can tell you the back side of a tree, passed by, may have held a new species easily overlooked.

Many of these Malaysian hoya species can be identified in other countries. Many others are endemic to this area but with further research and collecting may be found to also be non-endemic as well. The most widespread species were the first to be discovered and described. Hoya multiflora Blume as a presently recognized single species may in fact represent 3 or more distinct species. It was first described by C. L. Blume in 1823 "Catalogue Gew. Buitenzorg 49". Hoya campanulata, diversifolia & lacunosa were all described by Blume in 1826. In his work "Bijdagen tot de Flora von Nederalndsche Indie". In subsequent sections I have listed all the species and also the literature
3 pertaining to each. See below "A list of Species & Their Literature References" Here I have listed 50 names (some are synonymous).

1) pg 1~29, A Monograph  .pdf document
2) pg 31~26, Hoya Acicularis↔Hoya Erythrostemma .pdf document
     + Fraterna Vol 13 #4, Oct-Dec 2000, pg 41
3) pg 207~451, Hoya Excavata↔Hoya Micrantha .pdf document
4) pg 452~544, Hoya Mitrata↔Hoya Occlusa  .pdf document
5) pg 545~796, Hoya Parviflora↔Appendix I .pdf document
6) pg 1~14, Species List  .pdf document  

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Sunday, June 15, 2014

Hoya Herbarium Sheets

Herbarium sheets are made up of preserved (pressed and dried) plant specimens, normally a single plant per sheet. The herbarium sheets are 11 x 17 inches. In the past plant material was field collected, placed in plant presses between absorbent materials (blotters, newsprint, etc.) and left there until thoroughly dried. This dried material is then arranged on the sheet and glued in place. Collecting data is often presented in the upper left corner of the sheets, it may contain a lot or little information or even be absent. If present there is usually a field number, the collectors name, the date collected, the location, sometimes the altitude. The plants habitat, and habit (height, diameter and other pertinent data). The characters of the leaf, flower, fruit and other data may be found there. Special notations are occasionally included.

 First (1) are type sheets arranged in alphabetical order. Next (2) sheets with names, they may or may not be correctly identified. (3) all other sheets, available to me and sheets not identified follow. I have tried to limit each file to 20 sheets so as to not make them too large for current computers to handle.

It should be noted that this is a work in progress, and it is my hope that others will help to contribute information on this topic. Together, we help others in their quest of discovering more about the Hoya Species.

There are 29 files -- more will be updated as information becomes available:
AH-0: Index, pg 1~26  .pdf document 
AH-1: pg 1~20, Hoya Acuta Haworth↔Hoya Australius  .pdf document  
AH-2: pg 1~19, Hoya Australius↔Hoya Bilobata  .pdf document  
AH-3: pg 21~40, Hoya Bilobata↔Hoya Campanulata  .pdf document  
AH-4: pg 41~60, Hoya Camphorifolia↔Hoya Carnosa  .pdf document 
AH-5: pg 61~80, Hoya Caudata↔Hoya Chlorantha var. Tutilensis  .pdf document
AH-6: pg 81~100, Hoya Citrina↔Hoya Crassipes  .pdf document
AH-6.2: pg 101~120, Hoya Crassipes↔Hoya Diptera .pdf document
AH-6.3: pg 121~140, Hoya Diptera↔Hoya Diversifolia  .pdf document
AH-7.1: pg 141~160, Hoya Fischeriana↔Hoya Fusca  .pdf document
AH-8: pg 161~180, Hoya Fusca↔Hoya Imbricata  .pdf document
AH-8.2: pg 181~200, Hoya Imbricata↔Hoya Incrassata .pdf document
AH-9: pg 201~220, Hoya Incrassata↔Hoya Kuhlii  .pdf document
AH-10: pg 221~240, Hoya Kuhlii↔Hoya Lancilimba .pdf document
AH-11: pg 241~260, Hoya Lancilimba↔Hoya Latifolia .pdf document
AH-12: pg 261~280, Hoya Latifolia↔Hoya Lyi  .pdf document
AH-13: pg 281~300, Hoya Macgillivrayi↔Hoya Maingayi .pdf document
AH-14: pg 301~320, Hoya Maingayi↔Hoya Meliflua .pdf document
AH-15: pg 321~340, Hoya Meliflua Hoya Multiflora .pdf document
AH-16: pg 341~360, (all) Hoya Multiflora  .pdf document
AH-16.1: pg 361~379, Hoya Multiflora↔Hoya Obtusifolia .pdf document
AH-17: pg 381~400, Hoya Obtusifolia↔Hoya Odorata .pdf document
AH-18: pg 401~420, Hoya Odorata Hoya↔Parasitica .pdf document
AH-19: pg 421~440, Hoya Parasitica Hoya↔Polystachya .pdf document
AH-20: pg 461~480, Hoya Retusa Hoya↔Rufolanata .pdf document 
AH-21: pg 481~500, Hoya Rumphii↔Hoya Subglabra .pdf document
AH-22: pg 501~520, Hoya Trukensis↔Hoya Vitiensis .pdf document
AH-23: pg 521~536, Hoya Vitiensis↔Hoya Wightii .pdf document
AH-26: pg 537~556, Incorrect Identifications  .pdf document

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Saturday, June 14, 2014

Tranlator Types Pollinia

Translator types in the Genus Hoya

In attempting to find new relationships of structure in this genus I have attempted to group the translators and the caudicles (two separate structures, one above the other normally) into groups of similar structure. The data was taken from my years of study and accumulation of data on the Pollinaria of this genus.

Structurally I see, without defining the structures too narrowly, that that there are two divisions that can be seen in the translators (1) translators that do not extend out beyond the proximal end of the pollinia (2) those that do extend further outward. The second group (2) can be divided roughly into wide translators and more narrow from the front on view of this structure. Within this later grouping there is considerable variation in shape from long ovals, to drumstick or delta shapes. There is much integration of types. A third category is where the translator extends externally from the side of the retinaculum, Hoya darwinii Loher is prime example. (3) Some I have placed in this group may be due to the pollinium slumping down when removed from the anther pockets for study.

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Genus Hoya: Anther Wings

Genus Hoya


The anther wings of a hoya are made up the two sides of a channel that extends inward from an area between two adjacent coronal lobes. This channel ends inward just below the stigmatic surface that is situated at the outer corners of the hoya stylar table. It has been assumed this channel is an adaptive structure that aids in the pollination of a hoya flower. The anther wing sides are made of a rigid material, with a rounded edged upper surface, linear in extent, of various thicknesses. Looking at one surface of this structure (by removing an individual coronal lobe and viewing it in side view) it will be observer that the upper edge is thickened (the rounded edge referred to above) and scythe shaped to various degrees, (as in a scythe) the lower portions are thinner, ending below and inwardly as more of a sharp edge. The channel formed by the tow sides form the anther wing, is not always a continuously smooth surface from the outer end inward to its apex, the channel on occasion has a ridge part way up which would hinder the smooth entry of a pollinia if this were an avenue of pollination.

One document: pg 1~9  .pdf document 

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Hoya Foliage: Leaves

Hoya Foliage - Their Leaves
A Pictorial Guide

Hoya leaves are highly variable in size, shape, thickness, texture and venation. They may be glabrous or hairy. The leaf is made up of a petiole and a blade (see labeling on previous page). The blade may have hairs on both surfaces or on only one surface. These hairs are simple or uniseriate. They are thin-walled, very fine, and usually white and vary in length and dispersion. The texture varies from thin e.g. Hoya microphylla, to very thick and succulent e.g. Hoya australis ssp. rupicola, depending on the species and also its habitat. There is usually one or a group of nectariferous glands at the junction of the petiole with the leaf blade.

The leaf surface is covered with a relatively thick wax layer (cuticle) above the single celled epidermis. Below the epidermal layer are palisade cells and below this the spongy parenchyma, throughout which is the scattered vein system. Below then the lower epidermis. In Hoya species the mesophyll varies from undifferentiated to strongly differentiated. There is usually a lot of sclerenchymatous mesophyll fibers, like a mat of tangled spider webs. This later also varies in its presence and thickness among the different species.

It should be mentioned that leaf size shape are the most variable structure of a hoya plant due to environmental factors of light, nutrition, genetics and other factors even in the wild and more so under domestication. Leaves of hoya may have various distinctive markings on the upper leaf surface. This can be spotting, streaks and blotching. This arises from irregular concentrations of chromoplasts (colored cell inclusions) in cells immediately below the upper leaf surface.

Also See: Hoya Leaves: click here 
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Wednesday, June 11, 2014

Passport: Genus Eriostemma

Genus Eriostemma

 Translated from 135:
Section VII. Eriostemma Schlechter. I thought it best to present here this distinctive
section Eriostemma. This section is so well and sharply different, that one could consider
whether or not to regard it as a separate sub-genus. I have so far presented above briefly
the main points, but now I wish to present them once again in more detail. In habit there
is a strong similarity that can be found with EU-Hoya, but the branches are softer and
more fleshy and consistently with more or less soft hairs. The peduncles are
extraordinarily thick and soft textured, the calyx as with Pterostemma more strongly
structured, and the large hairy blooms are likewise fleshy. The gynostegium with the
corona scales stand upon a woolly matted column that is the outgrowth formed of the
filaments, which are united with the corona tube. The pollinia are distinguished (marked)
as opposed to the other Hoya species by means of the fact that the translators have
undergone a strong development and exhibit a twist; also the retinaculum is rather large.
The pollinia are more club shaped and moreover do not have the keel on the outer edge,
characteristic of other Hoya sections.

We for a long time now have been aware that the species in this section have very
little in common with the Genus Hoya and so have made the decision to place it into the
2 Genus status. In addition to the differences noted by Dr. Schlechter above, the characters of the Genus Eriostemma (Schlechter) Kloppenburg and Gilding are as follows:

Part One:  pg 1 ~ 142  .pdf document
Part Two:  pg 148 ~ 250  .pdf document 

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Monday, June 9, 2014

Hoya Pollinaria

Hoya Pollinaria

A Photographic Study

This works is dedicated to the serious student and researcher who wishes to learn more of the Genus Hoya. It is hopped it may lend additional data for pollen researchers in other Asclepiad genera and species. Mostly it is in appreciation of the intricacies of any study and the realization that no subject is simple once an in-depth inquiry is started. I wish to again thank all who have contributed of material and time to further my work in this field, their concern and helpful criticism is always appreciated.

“The pollen masses present great variations 
in size, form, and length of pedicels 
and probably afford excellent characters”
J. D. Hooker 1838 in Flora of British India.

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Saturday, June 7, 2014

Hoya CALYX 1 thru 3

Hoya Calyx

A Photographic Study

revised and updated February 2014

The first "whorl" of the flower structure in made up of 5 sepals at the end of the pedicel and just outside of the corolla. In the flowers development the calyx at first covers the whole flower bud. As the inner parts maturate, they expands and the corolla pushes ever larger, eventually for the most part hiding the small calyx. Most taxonomists consider this structure so minor that some do not even include it in a hoya description. It is, however unique in some species and has structural characteristics that should be observed and noted. It can vary in length, width, amount of overlap at the base of the sepals, its central thickening, the amount and placement of indumentum (hairs) on its outer surface, in edge ciliation. Occasionally with hair cells inside and in the presence or absence, and number length etc. of a tongue like structure at the sepal sinus area the "ligule"
In Latin this is a Third declension noun and its stem is "calyc-". we usually see it as "calyx" or the genitive form "calycis".

Use corresponding document page numbers to find features listed in Table of Contents:
  • Part 1 (pg 1~142)  Amrita ~ Acuta   .pdf document  
  • Part 2 (pg 143~358)  Acanthominima ~ Camphorifolia similis  .pdf document 
  • Part 3 (pg 359~386)    Appendix Species w/measurements + data  .pdf document 
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Hoya Corona: Part 1 thru 5

 Corona in Latin means a garland, wreath or crown. It is a fleshy structure that occupies the center of the flower. This structure results from the congenital union of the stamens (5). Evolutionary steps leading to the Genus Hoya (Asclepiadaceae-Asclepiadoideae) progressed to complexity from the more simple flower forms found in Apocinaceae-Plumerioideae, where the anthers are still free from the style head. In a simple flower we have slender filaments topped by anthers (containing the pollen). The corona is initiated after the corolla has partially developed. The 5 coronal scales are really very complex, as we will see. They are fleshy, glabrous, are attached (form a continuity) with the column and the edges of the stylar table that occupies the center of the hoya flower. On this lower inner surface of each coronal scale there is a triangular membranous structure the anther which has two pockets that hold the pollinia (pollen). Lets look at this structure in picture form. The corona with all of its variables makes an excellent taxonomic tool to delineate hoya species but in some old descriptions it is not even mentioned...

  • Part 1 (pg 1~156)  Acicularis ~ Gildingii   .pdf document
  • Part 2 (pg 157~309)  Golamcioana ~ Pentaphlebia   .pdf document 
  • Part 3 (pg 309~408)  Picta ~ Yapiana   .pdf document 
  • Part 4 (pg 409~544)  A New Hoya Corona: Hoya sp. ABG NG #12  .pdf document
  • Part 5 (pages 1~24)    Appendix Corona   .pdf document 
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